|Introduction to Neurofeedback and Depression|
|Enhancement of Spiritual Transformation thru Alpha-Theta Training (Testimonial)
Depression, Anxiety, and Confusion, 45yF
C.L.: IBS, Depression, 46yF
J.C.T.: Depression and Learning Disabilities, 14yM
Bob: Suidical, Depressed, 44yM
|The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on personality and mood.
Raymond J, Varney C, Parkinson LA, Gruzelier JH. Cognitive Brain Res. 2005 May;23(2-3):287-292.
|Clinical use of an alpha asymmetry neurofeedback protocol in the treatment of mood disorders: Follow-up study one to five years post therapy.
Baehr, Elsa; Rosenfeld, J. Peter; Baehr, Rufus; Journal of Neurotherapy, Vol 4(4), 2001. pp. 11-18.
|An EEG biofeedback protocol for affective disorders.
Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):7-12. Review.
|Wang, S.-Y., Lin, I.-M., Peper, E., Chen, Y.-T., Yeh, Y.-C., …. Chu, C.-C. (2016). The efficacy of neurofeedback among patients with major depressive disorder. Preliminary study. NeuroRegulation, 3(3), 127-134.
Hammond, D. C. (2005). Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 105–123
|The clinical use of an alpha asymmetry protocol in the neurofeedback treatment of depression: Two case studies.
Baehr, Elsa, Rosenfeld, J. P., Baehr, Rufus.
Journal of Neurotherapy , 1997 Fal-Win, v2 (n3):10-23.
|Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms.
Saxby E, Peniston EG
Journal of Clin Psychol 51 (5): 685-693 (Sep 1995)
|Self regulation of electrocortical activity in schizophrenia and schizotypy: a review.
Gruzelier J. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):23-9. Review.
|Manic Depressive Illness
Frederick K. Goodwin, Kay Redfield Jamison
EEG Biofeedback Training for Depression
The most prominent use of biofeedback in the United States is for anxiety disorders and stress management. For these conditions, relaxation training and peripheral biofeedback modalities are very helpful. Unfortunately, these techniques do not generally address the far more common depressive conditions, such as primary unipolar depression, reactive depression, seasonal affective disorder, bipolar disorder, and PMS. Often, anxiety is seen in the context of depression, in which case the conventional relaxation techniques only address the anxiety condition, and may not remediate the underlying depression. The latter requires training to a more highly activated state.
EEG biofeedback offers a new modality for addressing depressive conditions as well as anxiety. This appears to be the case because EEG training impacts on the basic mechanism by which the brain controls physiological arousal. In this manner, normal regulation of arousal may be restored, which means that sleep may normalize in the depressed person, and normal range of affect may return. Other benefits of the training may accrue as well. If the person is experiencing chronic pain, which may be either a cause of depression, or its effect, such pain may remediate as well.
The training appears to be effective regardless of the pathway by which the person has become depressed, whether this results from a genetic pre-disposition, early childhood trauma, or a subsequent traumatic (physical or emotional) experience, or simply a physiological change of unknown causation. As the training proceeds, the client may find that anti-depressant or stimulant medication will no longer be needed. Hence, the person should be under continuing medical care for his condition, so that the medication dose may be monitored. It is generally observed that the requirement for anti-depressant medication will be reduced or eliminated entirely as the training proceeds.
It is true of all remedies for depression that they are accompanied commonly by the recall of prior traumatic memories, which may have been totally suppressed over the years. It is therefore important that counselling be available in the event of such traumatic recall, and for other profound emotional changes which can be elicited by the training.
The training has also been found to be helpful in cases of depression caused by specific traumatic events, such as rape, and by other insults to the brain such as chemotherapy, or general anesthesia in the elderly. EEG biofeedback training is also indicated for those clients who do not respond favorably to medical management, and for those who are counselled to avoid certain medications by their doctor. This category includes in particular pregnant women.
There is evidence that once a person experiences a depressive episode, subsequent episodes are more likely. Hence, training the brain to remediate depression may have the beneficial effect of tending to make subsequent recurrences less likely. The training also appears to be effective for a variety of conditions which are seen concomitantly with depression, such as alcohol dependence and violent behavior.